Chapter I – Citizenship
Article 14. The following are citizens of the Philippines:
- Those who are citizens of the Philippines at the time of the adoption of this Constitution;
- Those whose fathers or mothers are citizens of the Philippines; and
- Those who are naturalized in accordance with law.
Article 15. Natural-born citizens are those who are citizens of the Philippines from birth or those who, in accordance with law, reacquire such citizenship. Those born of Filipino mothers who elect Filipino citizenship shall be deemed natural-born citizens.
Article 16. Every citizen shall have the right against arbitrary deprivation of citizenship. Philippine citizenship may be lost or reacquired in the manner provided by law, provided that:
- No citizen of the Philippines may be deprived of his citizenship unless he becomes at the same time a citizen of another state by his consent, or be denied the right to change his nationality except in times of war;
- Citizens of the Philippines who marry aliens shall retain their citizenship, unless by other acts or omissions they are deemed, under the law, to have renounced it; and
- Decrees of naturalization shall be final and unassailable two years after their date of promulgation by competent authority.
The foregoing notwithstanding, dual citizenship may be allowed under conditions set by law, provided that, in pursuance of a treaty with another state, a person who has been a citizen also of the other state from birth, and who has his permanent domicile there, shall forfeit Philippine citizenship at or after the age of eighteen. The law may further provide that, upon the declaration of a state of war between the Philippines and a foreign country, persons who are citizens of both must immediately manifest their renunciation of citizenship in the hostile state.