Chapter I – Common Provisions

Article 139. The Constitutional Commissions, which shall be independent, are the Civil Service Commission, the Commission on Elections, the Commission on Audit, and the Rights Enforcement Commission.

Article 140. No member of a Constitutional Commission shall, during his tenure, hold any other office or employment. Neither shall he engage in the practice of any profession or in the active management or control of any business which in any way may be affected by the functions of his office, nor shall he be financially interested, directly or indirectly, in any contract with, or in any franchise or privilege granted by the Government, any of its subdivisions, agencies, or instrumentalities, including government-owned or -controlled corporations or their subsidiaries.

Article 141. The salary of the Chairman and the Members shall be fixed by law and shall not be decreased during their tenure.

Article 142. The Constitutional Commissions shall appoint their officials and employees in accordance with law.

Article 143. The Commissions shall enjoy fiscal autonomy. Their approved annual appropriations shall be automatically and regularly released.

Article 144. Each Commission en banc may promulgate its own rules concerning pleadings and practice before it or before any of its offices. Such rules however shall not diminish, increase, or modify substantive rights.

Article 145. Each Commission shall decide by a majority vote of all its Members any case or matter brought before it within sixty days. A case or matter is deemed submitted for decision or resolution upon the filing of the last pleading, brief, or memorandum required by the Commission or its rules. Unless otherwise provided by this Constitution or by law, any decision, order, or ruling of each Commission may be brought to the Court of Appeals on certiorari by the aggrieved party within thirty days from receipt of a copy.

Article 146. Each Commission shall perform such other functions as may be provided law.


Kristian Ligsay Jensen

Half Danish half Filipino. Born and raised in Southeast Asia - mostly the Philippines. Has been living in Denmark since the age of 18.

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